Some organizational assessment or needs-evaluation projects (e.g., a survey on library services or the effectiveness of a departmental website) do not constitute "human participant research" (NHPR) and may not require IRB applications. However, individuals should not make this determination themselves. Moreover, increasingly some publications or conferences require verification of IRB consultation even for NHPR determinations. The IRB cannot provide retroactive exemptions or NHPR determinations under any circumstances. Thus, check with the IRB before initiating any aspect of a QI/QA, program evaluation, etc., to confirm whether you or your students' project falls into this category, and whether it needs some form of IRB submission..