Galen Trail, PhD

PhD, Sport Management

Professor, Sport Administration & Leadership

Phone: 206.398.4605

Building/Room: JEFF 401-K

Galen Trail CV


Dr. Galen Trail joined the faculty at Seattle University in the fall of 2008. He was on the sport management faculty at The Ohio State University, the University of Florida, and Iowa State University over the previous 11 years. He has taught classes in sport consumer behavior, sport marketing, media and branding in sport, sport business/finance, sport management, legal aspects of sport, research methods and evaluation, among others.

Dr. Trail has worked as a consultant in the area of sport consumer behavior for professional teams such as the Arizona Diamondbacks, Philadelphia Phillies, Seattle Storm, Washington Stealth, and Baltimore Orioles. He has also consulted with the Champions Tour, the McDonalds LPGA classic, the Boeing Classic, and many NCAA Division I athletic departments (University of Florida, Iowa State, Ohio State, University of Texas, University of Delaware, among others).

His main area of research focuses on sport consumer behavior and he has published over 70 books, book chapters and articles in journals such as the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, International Journal of Sport Management, International Journal of Sport Communication, and Sport Marketing Quarterly. His work has been cited over 4400 times. In the last several years though, he has applied his expertise (almost 20 years) as a researcher and as a consultant in sport consumer behavior/marketing to a new endeavor: Assisting sport organizations to help their fans, spectators, or participants improve environmentally sustainable behaviors both at the event and at home. This focus on marketing sustainability through sport has led to multiple research projects over the last several years working with sport organizations to improve their sustainability marketing and communications. This has led to publication of a book (see below), several book chapters, and research articles. Dr. Trail is on the editorial board or is a reviewer for multiple journals.

Dr. Trail earned his Ph.D. in Sport Management from Ohio State, his Master's in Physical Education from Whitworth College, and his Bachelor's in Psychology from the University of Puget Sound. He taught K-12 PE for 4 years at St. George's School in Spokane in the early 90's, where he also coached volleyball, basketball, and baseball. He also was a volunteer assistant coach for the Whitworth College women's basketball team for a year.

Teaching and Research Interests

Featured Publications

  • Trail, G. T., & McCullough, B. (in press). Marketing sustainability through sport. In T. Kellison, & B. McCullough. (Eds.), Sport, Sustainability, & the Environment Handbook (pp. xxx-xxx).

  • Trail, G. T., & James, J. D. (in press). Seven deadly sins of manuscript writing: Reflections of two experienced reviewers. Submitted to the Journal of Global Sport Management. DOI: 10.1080/24704067.2016.1231927

  • Trail, G. T. (2016). Marketing Sustainability through Sport. Seattle, WA: Sport Consumer Research Consultants LLC.

  • Trail, G. T. (2016). Sport consumer behavior. In G. B. Cunningham, J. F. Fink, & A. Doherty (Eds.), Handbook of Theory in Sport Management (pp. 225-234). London: Taylor & Francis Books. 

  • Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., & Lee, D. (2016). A longitudinal study of past attendance behavior and preseason loyalty on actual attendance, postseason loyalty, and end-of-year loyalty. Journal of Amateur Sport, 2(3), 1-23. 

  • Ballouli, K., Trail, G. T., Koesters, T. C., & Bernthal, M. J. (2016). Differential effects of motives and points of attachment on conative loyalty of Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix attendees. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 25(3), 166-181. 

  • Trail, G. T., James, J. D., Anderson, D. F., Kwon, H. & Robinson, M. J. (2016). An examination of Oliver’s product loyalty framework. International Journal of Sport Marketing of Sponsorship, 17(2), 94-109. 

  • Trail, G. T., & James, J. D. (2015). Sport Consumer Behavior (2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Sport Consumer Research Consultants LLC. 

  • Trail. G. T. (2015). Marketing sustainability through sport organizations. In B. P. McCullough (Ed.), Introduction to environmental sport management (pp. 81-101). Seattle, WA: Forwarding Sport Sustainability, LLC. 

  • Larkin, B., Fink, J., & Trail, G. T. (2015). The new home field advantage? An examination of constraints and motivators as predictors of sport media consumption intention. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 24(3) 183-197. 

  • Lee, D., & Trail, G. T. Lee, C. Schoenstedt, L. & Choi, H. (2013). Exploring structural relationships among the factors that affect purchase intention of athletic team merchandise. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 8(1), 27-35. 

  • Kim, Y. K., Trail, G. T., & Magnusen, M. J. (2013). Transition from motivation to behavior: Examining the moderating role of identification on the relationship between motives and attendance. International Journal of Sport Marketing and Sponsorship, 14, 190-211. 

  • Shapiro, S., Ridinger, L., & Trail, G. T. (2013). An analysis of multiple spectator consumption behaviors, identification, and future behavioral intentions within the context of a new college football program. Journal of Sport Management, 27, 130-145. 

  • Uhlman, B. T. & Trail, G. T. (2012). An analysis of the motivating factors of Seattle Sounders FC season ticket holders: A case study. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 21, 243-252. 

  • Trail, G. T., *Kim, Y. K., Kwon, H. H., *Harrolle, M. G., *Braunstein-Minkove, J. R., & Dick, R. (2012). The effects of vicarious achievement and team identification on BIRGing and CORFing: Testing mediating and moderating effects. Sport Management Review 15(3), 345-354. 

  • Lee, D., & Trail, G. T. (2012).  Confirmatory analysis of the athletic team merchandise model.  Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 16(2), 101-118. 

  • Kim, Y. K., & Trail, G. T. (2011). Factors influencing spectator sport consumption: A case of NCAA women’s college basketball. International Journal of Marketing and Sponsorship, 13(1), 60-82. 

  • Lee, D., & Trail, G. T. (2011). The influence of personal values and goals on cognitive and behavioral involvement in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 593-605. 

  • Kim, Y. K., Trail, G. T., & Ko, Y. J. (2011). The influence of relationship quality on sport consumption behaviors: An empirical examination of the relationship quality framework. Journal of Sport Management. 25, 576-592.

  • Kim, Y. K., Trail, G. T., Woo, B., & Zhang, J. J. (2011). Sport consumer-team relationship quality: Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 12(3), 254-271. 

  • Lee, D., & Trail, G. T. (2011). A theoretical model of team-licensed merchandise purchasing (TLMP). ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 6(1), 62-67. 

  • Braunstein-Minkove, J. R., Zhang, J. J., & Trail, G. T. (2011). Athlete endorser effectiveness: Model development and analysis. Sport, Business, and Management: An International Journal, 1, 93-114. 

  • Kim, Y. K., Trail, G. T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding relationships between sport consumers and sport organizations: A relationship quality approach. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 57-69. 

  • Lee, D., Trail, G. T., Kwon, H. H. & Anderson, D. F. (2011). Consumer values versus perceived value: Relationships among items from the MVS, PRS, and PERVAL scales. Sport Management Review, 14, 89-101. 

  • Kim, M., & Trail, G. T. (2010). The effects of service provider employment status and service quality exchange on perceived organizational image and intention to attend a game. Sport Management Review, 13, 225-234. 

  • Harrolle, M. G., Trail, G. T., Rodríguez, A., & Jordan, J. S. (2010). Conative loyalty of Latino and Non-Latino professional baseball fans. Journal of Sport Management, 24, 456-471.

  • Kwon, H. H., & Trail, G. T. (2010). Winning, spectator mood, and unplanned buying of sport-team licensed apparel: A dual information processing perspective. International Journal of Human Movement Science, 4, 49-64. 

  • Kim, Y. K. & Trail, G. T. (2010). Constraints and motivators: A new model to explain consumer behavior. Journal of Sport Management, 24, 190-210. 

  • Kim, M., & Trail, G. T. (2010). The effects of service provider gender and rater gender on perceptions of service quality. International Journal of Sport Management, 11, 55-70. 

  • Kim, M., Trail, G. T., Lim, J., & Kim, Y. K. (2009). The role of the psychological contract in intention to continue volunteering. Journal of Sport Management, 23, 549-573. 

  • Lee, D., Trail, G. T., & Anderson, D. F. (2009). Motives and team identification of hockey spectators: Relevance to marketing ACHA hockey. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 5, 132-150.