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WAC 296-24, Part D & H-1
& WAC 296-155, Part G & I &N
Employees must utilize machinery, tools, materials, or equipment, whether owned by the employee or the University, in accordance with the safety or health requirements of this program or any applicable Washington Administrative Code (WAC).
Selecting the proper tool or piece of equipment for a particular job is an important step in maintaining a safe work place. Tools and equipment must be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s designed or intended purpose.
Employees will use proper tools suitable to the job being done. Only tools in good repair may be kept or used on the premises or on the job. Employee-owned tools must meet all safety requirements, whenever used for work.
Use the proper tool for the job. When possible, purchase tools with ergonomic features. The following guidelines apply to all tools and equipment, and to their operation.
Tools temporarily stored or laid aside on the job must be placed so as not to create a stumbling or falling hazard. They may not be left on ladders or in traffic areas. Tools with sharp edges must be covered or stored in such a way as to guard against a cutting hazard.
Particular care must be used when working in an elevated position. Tools must not be left unsecured, but should be kept in containers.
Tools must be stored in such a manner as to prevent them from becoming damaged.
Electric power-operated tools must either be of the approved double-insulated type or be grounded.
Portable ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI’s) must be installed in wet locations when there are new or remodel construction projects.
The use of electric cords for hoisting or lowering tools is not permitted.
Extension cords used for lighting supply must have conductors enclosed in common rubber sheaths and must be waterproofed for their entire length except at terminals. Ordinary twisted lamp cords and metallic sockets do not meet these requirements. Lamps for trouble lights must be enclosed in guards.
Lamp guards on trouble lights must be gas-proof when used in potentially explosive atmospheres. Lamp guards on trouble lights used in locations with exposed electrical contact points must be of non-conducting material.
The purpose of this program is to establish procedures to test, identify hazards, and maintain (in safe operating condition), all cords, cord sets, plugs, electrical equipment connected by a cord.
A copy of this program, including the specific procedures adopted by the University must be available at the job site for inspection. Sub contractors are also responsible for implementing and supervising all elements of this program including the required testing and inspections
Cord sets equipped with GFCI’s do not need to be checked as a part of an assured equipment-grounding program. Departments or employees who wish to avoid the process of having to inspect cord sets may do so by replacing them with GFCI equipped cord sets.
All 120 volt single phase 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets on a particular site, which are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees, shall have approved ground fault circuit interrupters for personal protection. Receptacles on a two wire single phase portable or vehicle mounted generator rated not more than 5 kW, when the circuit conductors are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded surfaces, need not be protected with ground fault circuit interrupters.
The employee using the equipment will visually inspect each cord set, attachment cap, plug of cord sets, and any equipment connected by cord and plug, except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage before each days use. The employee will look for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage, and for indications of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective must be removed from service and repaired or destroyed.
The following three tests shall be performed on cord sets or receptacles that are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and cord-connected and plug-connected equipment that is required to be grounded:
Power equipment must be used in a manner consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Supervisors must read and be completely familiar with the manufacturer’s operating instructions and recommended safety procedures. Because of the hazards inherent with power equipment, supervisors must verify that an employee has been properly trained on a piece of equipment before permitting that employee to use it. Equipment must be shut off when left unattended.
The tool support must be positioned at or above the center line of the wheel and be kept as close to the wheel as possible without touching, but never more than 1/8 inch away. Use the face and not the side of the wheel for grinding. The grinding wheel must be checked for cracks, breaks, or defects. Defective wheels shall be taken out of service and reported to the supervisor. Small items shall be held with pliers to keep hands away from the wheel. A tongue guard must be in place on each pedestal or bench grinder. The tongue guard is located above the tool rest and must be positioned less than one-fourth (1/4th) of an inch from the surface of the wheel.
Immediately before mounting, all grinding wheels must be closely inspected and sounded by the user to make sure they have not been damaged in transit, storage, or otherwise, before they are mounted. They should be tapped gently with a light, non-metallic implement, such as the handle or a screwdriver for light wheels, or a wooden mallet for heavier wheels. This is known as the “ring test.” If wheels sound cracked (dead) they must not be used.
A few safety precautions must be remembered while operating a drill press.
Approved eye protection and ear protection must be worn when performing operations using a power cutoff saw, or when working in close proximity to a power cutoff saw or grinder.
The upper hood must completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give the maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
All hand-held power circular saws having a blade diameter greater than two inches and that lack positive accessory holding means must be equipped with a constant pressure switch or control that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. All hand-held gasoline-powered chain saws must be equipped with a constant pressure throttle control that will shut off the power to the saw chain when the pressure is released.
Chaps must be worn when using a chain saw.
The guard must be kept in proper condition. All portions of the saw blade must be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table. Bandsaw wheels must be fully encased. The front and back of the band wheels must remain enclosed by solid material, or by wire mesh, or perforated metal. Such mesh or perforated metal must be no less than 0.037 inch (U.S. Gage No. 20), and the openings must be no greater than three-eighths inch.
Solid material used for this purpose will be of an equivalent strength and firmness. The guard for the portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard will protect the saw blade at the front and outer side. This portion of the guard must be self-adjusting to raise and lower with the guide. The upper-wheel guard must conform to the travel of the saw on the wheel, and the top member of the guard should have at least a two-inch clearance outside the saw and be lined with smooth material, preferably metal. Effective brakes should be provided to stop the wheel in case of blade breakage.
The bandsaw must have a tension control device to indicate a proper tension for the standard saws used on the machine. This will help eliminate saw breakage due to improper tension.
Feed rolls of bandsaws must be protected with a suitable guard to prevent the hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The edge of the metal guard must come to within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the inside face of the feed roll in contact with the stock being cut.
Because explosive fumes may be emitted during charging or operating batteries, all potential sparks or flames must be kept away from the top of any liquid cell battery. Do not disconnect the cables while the charger is running. Smoking is not permitted in the vicinity of a battery that is being charged.
This section applies to the use of fixed and portable power tools for processing materials that generate chips or dust from wood, reconstituted wood products, or plastics.
Point of operations means that point at which cutting, shaping, boring, or forming is accomplished upon the stock.
Push stick means a narrow strip of wood or other soft material with a notch cut into one end that is used to push short or narrow pieces of material through saws.
Block means a short block of wood, provided with a handle similar to that of a plane and a shoulder at the rear end, which is used for pushing short stock over revolving cutters.
Jigs and Fixtures are devices for holding, supporting, or restraining material from movement while operations are being performed.
The table saw guard must completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting must be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the material being cut and remain in contact with it without offering any considerable resistance to the insertion or passage of material being sawed.
The hood must be strong enough to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operating, adjusting, and handling. It must also protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It must be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely to cause tooth breakage. The material should not shatter when broken, should be non-explosive, and should be no more flammable than wood. The hood must be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw. The mounting must be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.
Unusual Shapes: When a hood-type guard cannot be used because of unusual shapes or cuts, a jig or fixture that will provide equal safety for the operator must be used. Combs (featherboards) or suitable jigs must be used when a standard guard cannot be used, as in dadoing, grooving, jointing, molding, and rabbeting. On the completion of such operations, the guard must be immediately replaced.
Push Stick: A push stick must be used on short or narrow stock or when there is a possibility of the hand contacting the blade.
Spreader and Anti-kickback Devices: Each table saw should be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The spreader should be made of hard tempered steel or its equivalent, and should be thinner than the saw kerf. It should be of sufficient width to provide adequate stiffness or rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow tending to bend or throw it out of position. The spreader should be attached so that it will remain in true alignment with the saw even when either the saw or table is tilted, and should be placed so that there is not more than one-half (1/2) inch space between the spreader and the back of the saw when the largest saw is mounted in the machine. The provision of a spreader in connection with grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting is not required. On the completion of such operations, the spreader should be immediately replaced.
The planer or jointer cutting head knife must not project out greater than one-eighth (1/8th) inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head.
The opening in the table must be kept as small as possible. The clearance between the edge of the rear table and the cutter head must not be more than one-eighth inch. The table throat opening must not be more than two and one-half inches when tables are set or aligned with each other for zero cut.
The jointer guard must cover all the section of the head on the working side of the fence or gage. The guard must effectively keep the operator’s hand from coming in contact with the revolving knives. The guard must automatically adjust itself to cover the unused portion of the head and must remain in contact with the material at all times.
The jointer guard must cover the section of the head back of the gage or fence.
Safe, effective use of a wood lathe requires study and knowledge of procedures for using this tool. Read and thoroughly understand the owner/operator’s manual. Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses that include side protectors and a full face shield when needed.
Tie back long hair. Do not wear gloves, loose clothing, jewelry or any dangling objects that may catch in rotating parts or accessories.
Check the owner/operator’s manual for proper speed recommendations. Use slower speeds for larger diameter or rough pieces and increased speed for smaller diameters and pieces that are balanced.
Make certain that the belt guard or cover is in place. Check that all clamping devices (locks), such as on the tailstock and tool-rest are tight.
Check the speed, drill bit or tool to make sure it matches the size, thickness or type of material being machined. Drill bits and cutting tools must be kept sharp with a proper angle on the cutting edge. Improper speed may break, overheat or damage the bit or tool.
Presses must be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Presses must be clearly marked with the manufacturer’s stated load capacity and the rating must be visible from the point of operation. Hazards include danger from flying pieces of parts that may have shattered or slipped out under great pressure.
Protection of operators: Operators must stand in a position or be shielded by a guard from possible injury due to failure of the press, failure of the work material or other operational hazards.
Instruction to operators: Operators must be trained and instructed in the safe methods of operation before starting work on a press. The employee will be supervised to insure correct use of safe procedures.
Work area: Employees must maintain adequate clearance between machines so that movement of one operator will not interfere with the work of another. Ample room for cleaning machines, handling material, work pieces, and scrap must also be maintained. All surrounding floors must be kept in good condition and free from obstructions, grease, oil and water.
Overloading: Presses may only be operated within the tonnage and weight ratings specified by the manufacturer.
Freedom from movement: Work being pressed must be free from slippage or unintended movement.
The radial arm saw may be guarded with a fixed enclosure, fixed barrier guard, or a manually adjusted guard or a standard automatic adjusting guard. In those instances where an alternate fixed-type guard is used, it must provide protection equivalent to the protection afforded by the automatically adjusting guard.
The upper hood should completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood should be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade should be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
An adjustable stop should be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut.
Installation should be in such a manner that the front end of the unit will be slightly higher than the rear, so as to cause the cutting head to return to the starting position in the following manner when released by the operator:
Each radial arm saw used for ripping should be provided with non-kick-back fingers or dogs located on both sides of the saw so as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up
the material or to throw it back toward the operator. They should be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the thickness of material being cut. Ripping and ploughing must be against the direction in which the saw turns. The direction of the saw rotation must be conspicuously marked on the hood. In addition, a permanent label not less than 1 ½ inches by ¾ inch with standard proportional lettering should be affixed to the rear of the guard hood at approximately the level of the arbor, where the blade teeth exit the upper hood during the operation of the saw, reading as follows: “Danger: Do not rip or plough from this end.” The label color shall be danger red.
Departments are encouraged to purchase fiberglass ladders over wood ladders because they do not damage as easily. Always inspect a ladder carefully prior to use. Never use a ladder that you believe is unsafe. Always face the ladder while ascending or descending it. Never carry materials or tools while climbing or descending a ladder except in a tool pouch. Always be certain that shoes are free of mud and grease to prevent slips and falls. Ladders must never be lengthened by splicing additional sections to them. The only ladder that can be spliced is a fixed ladder that is permanently installed to a structure. Unattended ladders should be closed and lowered to the ground or floor.
Ladders shall be capable of supporting the following loads without failure:
Self-supporting portable ladders: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladder shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load.
Portable ladders that are not self-supporting: At least four times the maximum intended load, except that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load.
Fixed ladders: At least two loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated on two consecutive places of attachment. Each step or rung shall be capable of supporting a single concentrated load of at least 250 pounds.
General ladder ratings are as follows:
Special duty - 375 lbs. Maximum
Extra heavy - 300 lbs. Maximum
Heavy - 250 lbs. Maximum
Medium - 225 lbs. Maximum
Light - 200 lbs. maximum
A stepladder provides a reasonably stable base for carrying on work when both hands are used. It is usually equipped with a pail shelf for tools and materials. The steps of the ladder in most cases are flat and wide enough for comfortable standing. These ladders are self-supporting with wide spread bases.
Stepladders should be used only if the space in which the ladder is placed is sufficiently large to permit the proper placement of the ladder.
A stepladder is a temporary elevated base from which to work. It should not be used to move between different levels.
Proper use means adhering to the following:
Straight or extension ladders are used in places where a stepladder cannot be used due to limited space and heights greater than a stepladder can provide. A straight ladder may not exceed thirty feet in length.
Guidelines for proper inspection and maintenance of stepladders are as follows:
Guidelines for proper inspection and maintenance of extension or straight ladders are as follows:
9.0 General Hoisting Requirements
Only trained, designated personnel are permitted to operate cranes, cherry pickers, Genie lifts, articulated arm vehicles, boom hoists, or similar equipment. These employees must also be completely familiar with the manufacturer’s recommendations concerning safe operating procedures. Operators must follow manufacturer’s recommendations completely.
Prior to initial use, equipment must be inspected to insure that it is safe and in proper operating condition. The rated capacity can be found in WAC 296-24-294 and its subsections. Rated capacity of slings, ropes, and equipment must not be exceeded. The rated capacity of a rope or sling often is reduced to 50% when the angle of loading approaches 60 degrees from the vertical. The tables in WAC 296-24, Part D must be consulted to determine actual capacities for different ropes or configurations. This WAC can be obtained from the Environmental Health and Safety Coordinator.
Any unsafe conditions disclosed by an inspection must be corrected before operation of the hoist or lift is resumed. Only designated personnel may do adjustments and repairs.
After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane may not be operated until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.
The manufacturer’s recommended load limit must be clearly displayed on the hoisting device. The rated load limit must never be exceeded. The manufacturer’s recommendations must be followed. Allowance must be made for windy conditions and work must be stopped when winds are severe.
Guards must be securely fastened. Each guard will be capable of supporting without permanent distortion, the weight of a two-hundred (200) pound person unless the guard is located where it is impossible for a person to step on it.
Railings must also be able to withstand a two-hundred (200) pound force in a horizontal direction without deflection. Railings on vertical lifts must meet the requirements of a standard guardrail. A standard guardrail consists of a top rail, intermediate rail, toe board, and posts, and has a vertical height of 36 inches to 42 inches from upper surface of top rail to the floor or platform. Each length of railing must be smooth-surfaced throughout its length. The intermediate rail is located halfway between the top rail and the floor or platform.
Hooks must meet the manufacturer’s recommendations and must not be overloaded. If a hook is overloaded, it will suffer deformation or distortion. The capacity of the chain/hook system is set by the manufacturer who made them and can be obtained from the supplier. Safety latch type hooks must be used.
Employees, lift equipment, or devices of any kind may not approach nearer than 10 feet to any power line. For other instructions pertaining to operations near overhead electric lines see WAC 296-24-960.
A fire extinguisher (carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or equivalent) must be kept in the truck cab or vicinity of lift equipment. Operators and maintenance personnel will be made familiar with the use and care of the fire extinguishers provided. To schedule fire extinguisher training, contact the Environmental Health & Safety Coordinator.
Training is required before personnel may operate any aerial lift equipment. Each operator must be familiar with the manufacturer’s recommendations, safe practices, and equipment limitations. Refresher training may be required.
Chains used for overhead lifting must be made of proof-tested alloy steel. Welded alloy steel chain slings must have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and sling manufacturer.
Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel chains, must have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain.
The use of job or shop hooks and links or makeshift fasteners formed from bolts, rods, or other such attachments are prohibited.
If at any time any three-foot length of chain is found to have stretched one-third the length of a link it must be discarded.
The practice of placing bolts or nails between two links to shorten chains is prohibited. Splicing broken chains by inserting a bolt between two links with the heads of the bolt and the nut sustaining the load, or passing one link through another and inserting a bolt or nail to hold it, is prohibited. Annealing of chains is prohibited.
Only wire ropes that have a capacity exceeding 5 times the manufacturer’s recommended safe working load for a particular lifting job may be used. Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles must be covered or blunted. Wire rope must not be secured by knots.
The following limitations apply to the use of wire rope:
Note: This requirement does not preclude the use of another form of splice or connection, which can be shown to be as efficient, and which is not otherwise prohibited.
Natural or synthetic fiber ropes must be inspected for wear, mold, or damage before each use. They may only be used if the manufacturer’s recommended load capacity exceeds the load by a factor of five times.
Where overhead electric conductors are encountered in proximity to a work area, the supervisor is responsible for:
Low voltage lines. When work is being carried out in proximity to energized electrical service conductors operating at 750 volts or less, such work shall be performed in a manner to prevent contact by any worker with the energized conductors.
Overhead lines. If work is to be performed near overhead lines, the lines shall be de-energized and grounded, or other protective measures shall be provided before work is started. If the lines are to be de-energized, arrangements shall be made with the person or organization that operates or controls the electric circuits involved to de-energize and ground them. If protective measures, such as guarding, isolating, or insulating, are to be used these
precautions shall prevent employees from contacting such lines directly with any part of their body or indirectly through conductive materials, tools, or equipment.
Unqualified persons. When an unqualified person is working in an elevated position, or on the ground, near overhead lines, the location shall be such that the person and the longest conductive object he or she may contact cannot come closer to any unguarded, energized overhead line than the following distances:
For other instructions pertaining to operations near power lines see WAC 296-24-960.
All jacks, supports, stands and similar equipment should be marked with the manufacturers rated load limit. The rated load limit must never be exceeded. Hoisted or jacked equipment must be secure from movement before working on it. Equipment must be properly blocked and thoroughly supported before work may be performed under it. Check to insure everyone is clear before lowering equipment onto blocks or supports. Only approved chains, cables or slings may be used for lifting equipment.
Wooden blocks shall be placed between metal jack-stands and metal equipment to prevent slippage or movement.
A jack is an appliance for lifting and lowering or moving horizontally a load by application of a pushing force. Jacks may be of the following types: Lever and ratchet, screw and hydraulic.
The rating of a jack is the maximum working load it is designed to lift safely through a specified distance. The operator must make sure that the jack used has a rating sufficient to lift and sustain the load. The rated load must be legibly and permanently marked in a prominent location on the jack by casting, stamping, or other suitable means.
Compressed air may not be used for cleaning purposes unless it is reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) at the point of operation and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment.
Where overhead work is in progress protective measures must be initiated to prevent tools or other objects from falling on those below. Hard hats must be worn when working beneath other workers or equipment or when there is a possibility of injury from falling objects.
Excavations or trenches four (4) feet in depth or greater must utilize proper shoring or sloping procedures as defined in WAC 296-155-650 through 66411. SU employees will not conduct trenching deeper than four feet. This work, if necessary, will be contracted out. Before underground excavating begins, utility locations must be identified.